Minimum Contacts Chart & Table

Here’s a chart based partially on my own materials and partially on materials from Richard D. Freer, Introduction to Civil Procedure 72 (Aspen Pub. 2006).  This chart requires you to look at 1) the nature & quality of the contacts; and 2) the relation of the claim to the contacts.

A caveat about the chart: this is not the entire minimum contacts analysis, but rather a way to conceptualize the International Shoe case. Later cases expand on the steps of the analysis, and significantly modify the framework below.

Contacts single, isolated, occasional, or casual Contacts systematic and continuous 

Specific jurisdiction

Claim arises out of or relates to contacts


MAYBE: Specific Jurisdiction might or might not exist.


EASY: Specific Jurisdiction likely does exist.

General jurisdiction

Claim unrelated to contacts


EASY: General Jurisdiction does not exist.


MAYBE: General Jurisdiction might or might not exist.

For another view, here’s my take on a chart from Glannon.  See Joseph W. Glannon, Civil Procedure: Examples & Explanations 7 (Aspen Pub. 2006). Compare this chart with the table above to see how they say the same thing in different ways.

D has no contacts with forum state   Single, isolated, occasional, or casual contacts   Continuous & systematic contacts
—-> —-> —-> —-> —->
 No PJ at all   Specific jurisdiction maybe   Specific jurisdiction likely
Not enough for general jurisdiction General jurisdiction maybe

Used previously via handout, enhanced and posted to WordPress Sept. 11, 2015